Journal Articles & Publications
Peruse a collection of peer-reviewed journal articles and publications that provide new insight and data relevant to the county's health priorities. Click the title to access each document. Articles are organized by publication date.
Mechanisms of sleep deprivation-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice
November 7, 2018
Researchers at Toho University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan found that sleep-deprived mice had higher blood glucose levels and fat content in the liver—both of which are linked to insulin resistance and diabetes. For the experiment, researchers looked at two groups of mice. One group was kept awake for six hours and the other group could sleep as they wanted. Both groups has access to high-fat food and sugar water (to parallel human’s food habits) and were given a limited opportunity for physical activity. After the trial period, researchers measured glucose levels and fat content of the liver and found that the sleep-deprived group had significantly higher blood glucose levels and increased triglyceride levels and production of glucose in the liver—all factors that play into diabetes risk.
Published in: American Physiological Society
Similar study (2015): Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
October 18, 2018
Among more than 72,000 deaths in the U.S. last year, fentanyl factored into many of cases. In the search for solutions, a team of researchers at Brown University’s School of Public Health provided rapid-acting fentanyl test strips to young adults at risk of overdose in the state. New research by the team found that most of those young adults used the strips — and many who detected fentanyl reported changing their behavior to reduce overdose risk. They also found that fentanyl test strips are an effective harm-reduction tool to prevent overdose and can be a life-saving intervention for many young adults who use drugs.
Published in: International Journal of Drug Policy
October 16, 2018
Study looking at 400,000 youths from 88 countries around the world suggests physical punishment bans are making a difference in reducing youth violence. Of the countries included in the study, 30 have passed laws fully banning physical punishment of children, both in schools and in homes. The rates of fighting among adolescents were substantially lower than the 20 countries with no bans in place: by 69 percent for adolescent males and 42 less for females. The other 38 countries in the study — which include the United States, Canada, and the U.K. — have partial bans, in schools only. In those countries, adolescent females showed a 56 percent lower rate of physical fighting, with no change among males.
Read the full article at: BMJ Open
September 25, 2018
The study, led by Oxford University researchers, tracked nearly 500,000 people aged 40-69 enrolled in the UK Biobank database. Over seven years, 5,081 people had their first heart attack and one in three of them were women. Although the risk of having a heart attack is lower in women than in men of all ages, certain risk factors appeared to have a greater impact on women. Women who smoked were three times more likely to have a heart attack than women who did not smoke - but in men, smoking only doubled their risk. High blood pressure increased a woman's risk by an extra 83% relative to its effect in a man. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both had a greater impact on the heart attack risk of women compared to men, the study found.
Read the full article at: BMJ Open
July 26, 2018
A high gluten intake by mothers during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of their child developing type 1 diabetes, suggests a study published by The BMJ. This is an observational study, so no firm conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect. However, the researchers say this was a high quality study with a large sample size, and they were able to adjust for a number of factors that could have affected the results.
Published in: TheBMJ
In a serial cross-sectional study, researchers found that the percentage of all deaths attributable to opioids increased 292% (from 0.4% to 1.5%) between 2001 and 2016, resulting in approximately 1.68 million person-years of life lost in 2016 alone (5.2 per 1000 population). The burden was particularly high among adults aged 24 to 35 years; in 2016, 20% of deaths in this age group involved opioids.
Published in: JAMA Network
Among the many adverse childhood experiences, one must consider are the effects of maternal depression and of mothers being the victim of physical or sexual violence. What is the toll of these on children? Neamah et al. decided to evaluate this by looking at the strength of such an association on the cognitive development as well as physical growth of over a thousand toddlers between 18 to 36 months living in Tanzania. The results of the data collected are quite troubling and show that when both depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) were present in a mother, there was developmental delay in multiple cognitive modalities. In addition, IPV even without maternal depression was associated with expressive communication delay. While depression did not show an association with poor growth, IPV did increase the odds of a child showing stunted growth compared to toddlers whose mothers did not experience IPV.
Published in: American Academy of Pediatrics
Incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse in patients with pain who were exposed to opioid analgesic therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
April 21, 2018
Study reviewed eligible 6164 articles and 12 studies and found that opioid dependence or abuse only occurs in 4.7% percent of patients prescribed opioids for pain.
Published in: British Journal of Anesthesiology
April 19, 2018
The scientists studied a cohort of 903 healthy adults (mean age: 74) with no indications of either pre-diabetes or diabetes during clinic visits from 1997 to 1999, and then followed the participants through 2009. Vitamin D levels in blood were measured during these visits, along with fasting plasma glucose and oral glucose tolerance.
Over the course of time, there were 47 new cases of diabetes and 337 new cases of pre-diabetes, in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be categorized as type 2 diabetes.
Persons with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels below 30 ng/ml were considered vitamin D deficient. These persons, the researchers found, were up to five times at greater risk for developing diabetes than people with levels above 50 ng/ml.
Published in: PLOS
The relationship among breakfast time, morningness–eveningness preference and body mass index in Type 2 diabetes
April 13, 2018
"Going to bed later is linked with obesity in people with type 2 diabetes, and the main factor that drives this relationship is eating breakfast later." This was the conclusion of a new study led by Sirimon Reutrakul, who is an associate professor of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism in the College of Medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Prof. Reutrakul suggests that eating later causes a shift in the biological clock that regulates day-night patterns. Other studies have proposed that this can disrupt energy metabolism
Published in: Journal of Diabetic Medicine
April 4, 2018
From 2006 to 2010, the UK Biobank recruited 502,620 individuals from across the U.K. Their findings show that night shift work, especially rotating shift work including night shifts, is associated with higher type 2 diabetes odds and that the number of night shifts worked per month appears most relevant for type 2 diabetes odds. Also, shift work exposure does not modify genetic risk for type 2 diabetes, a novel finding that warrants replication.
Published in: Diabetes Care
Association Between US State Medical Cannabis Laws and Opioid Prescribing in the Medicare Part D Population
April 2, 2018
Researchers at the University of Georgia, Athens, looked at Medicare Part D prescriptions for people over the age of 65 between 2010 and 2015. They found that prescriptions for all opioids decreased by 2.11 million daily doses per year from an average of 23.08 million daily doses per year when a state instituted any medical cannabis law. When a state opened marijuana dispensaries, opioid prescriptions dropped by 3.7 million daily doses per year.
The researchers concluded: “Medical cannabis laws are associated with significant reductions in opioid prescribing in the Medicare Part D population. This finding was particularly strong in states that permit dispensaries, and for reductions in hydrocodone and morphine prescriptions.”
Published in: JAMA Internal Medicine
Effect of Opioid vs Nonopioid Medications on Pain-Related Function in Patients With Chronic Back Pain or Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis Pain: The SPACE Randomized Clinical Trial
March 6, 2018
In patients with stubborn back aches or hip or knee arthritis, opioids worked no better than over-the-counter drugs or other nonopioids at reducing problems with walking or sleeping. And they provided slightly less pain relief.
Published in: Journal of the American Medical Association
February 13, 2018
Researchers found that when adolescents reported a positive family climate and their parents using more effective parenting strategies -- like providing reasons for decisions and refraining from harsh punishments -- those adolescents tended to go on to have better relationship problem-solving skills and less-violent romantic relationships as young adults.
Published in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Press Release: ScienceDaily
Community service provider perceptions of implementing older adult fall prevention in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study
February 1, 2018
Previous research has shown that staff lacked sufficient knowledge regarding fall prevention services in addition to having limited resources required to run the program. This study determined how those involved in community organizations run perceived the barriers and strategies to fall prevention success.
The results of this qualitative study provide organizations with strategies on how to optimize fall prevention services in Canadian communities. Lead directors should be mindful of the program’s resource allocation, budgetary spending, and quality of deliverance, to facilitate successful prevention services. Furthermore, education, teamwork and policy change are other strategies that allow organizations to individualize services to clients that can participate.
Published in: BMC Geriatrics
February 22, 2018
A study by ISGlobal, in collaboration with Hospital del Mar and UCLA's Fielding School of Public Health, shows for the first time that exposure to green space during childhood is associated with beneficial structural changes in the developing brain.
Published in: Environmental Health Perspectives
Language is powerful and can have a strong impact on perceptions as well as behavior. This literature supports the need for a language movement in diabetes care and education. It also provides recommendations for language used by health care professionals and others when discussing diabetes through spoken or written words.
Published in: Diabetes Care journal
December 18, 2017
According to a new study from the Netherlands, people who are socially isolated are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, compared with people who have a larger social circle.
The study involved 2861 men and women (aged 40 to 75 years) from the southern part of the Netherlands. As reported in the article, a lack of participation in clubs or other social groups was associated with a 60% increased risk of pre-diabetes and 112% increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women, while in men it was associated with a 42% greater risk of type 2 diabetes.
Published in: BMC Public Health Journal
December 14, 2017
A major challenge for policymakers is how to design effective opioid-prescription policies to stem the flood of overdoses without having to wait several years to accumulate additional evidence. One possible solution is to couple policymaking with an evaluation plan that uses existing databases with nearly real-time health data.
Published in: New England Journal of Medicine
November 14, 2017
Study showed adolescents who spent more time on new media (including social media and electronic devices such as smartphones) were found more likely to report mental health issues, and adolescents who spent more time on nonscreen activities (in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, print media, and attending religious services) were less likely.
Published in: Clinical Psychological Science
Pilot Test of a Culturally Appropriate Diabetes Prevention Intervention for At-Risk Latina Women
October 23, 2017
Culturally tailored Diabetes Prevention Programs have shown potential as a feasible way of reducing risks associated with the development of Type 2 diabetes in at-risk Latina women.
Published in: SAGE Publications
April 13, 2017
Diabetes mellitus is among the most prevalent and morbid chronic diseases, affecting the health of millions of persons worldwide. According to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report for 2015, the prevalence of diabetes rose from approximately 333 million persons in 2005 to approximately 435 million persons in 2015, an increase of 30.6%.1 During the same interval, the annual number of deaths from diabetes rose from 1.2 million to 1.5 million
Published in: The New England Journal of Medicine
December 21, 2016
The recent passage of state youth sports concussion laws across the country introduces clinical implications for health care professionals caring for student-athletes. Although the laws were established to provide protections for student-athletes and prevent adverse outcomes, efforts aimed at implementation have uncovered various challenges in concussion diagnosis and management.
This review describes the various components of state youth sports concussion laws relevant to clinical practice and nuances that health care professionals should appreciate in this context. Additionally, concussion tools and strategies that can be used in clinical practice are discussed.
Published in: The American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
March 11, 2016
Researchers explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, researchers describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation.
Published in: Journal of Primary Prevention
Diabetes Is a Community Issue: The Critical Elements of a Successful Outreach and Education Model on the U.S.-Mexico Border
December 15, 2014
The Border Health Strategic Initiative (Border Health ¡SI!) collaboratively developed a culturally relevant diabetes outreach and education program. The model included a five-week series of free diabetes education classes that assisted participants in gaining the knowledge and skills necessary to be physically active, control diet, monitor blood sugar, take medications, and be aware of complications. Central to the model was the use of community health workers — or promotores de salud — to conduct outreach, participate in patient education, and provide individual support.
Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: Practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence. Annual review of public health.
First Published: December 10, 2014
This study examines deterrent strategies as a means of preventing gun violence injuries. Although more research is needed, the evidence suggests that deterrence may be an effective means of reducing overall gun violence related injuries.
Published in: Review in Advance
Health Systems Tackling Social Determinants of Health: Promises, Pitfalls, and Opportunities of Current Policies
Take-away points include modifications to 3 policies driving health systems toward intervening on social determinants of health:
The Internal Revenue Service should strengthen the Community Health Needs Assessment program by requiring nonprofit hospitals to address identified needs as part of the standard for nonprofit tax exemption.
Value-based payment models should incorporate financial support for at-risk hospitals implementing strategies to address social determinants because of their influence on quality-of-care outcomes.
The Accountable Health Communities program by CMS should test and evaluate models that allow health systems to fund social services directly
Published in: American Journal of Managed Care
Background—Vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms have been documented in patients with sport-related concussions. However, there is no current brief clinical screen to assess and monitor these issues.
Purpose—To describe and provide initial data for the internal consistency and validity of a brief clinical screening tool for vestibular and ocular motor impairments and symptoms after sport-related concussions.
Published in: American Journal of Sports Medicine
May - June, 2012
Randomized controlled trials have shown that the incidence of major depressive episodes can be significantly reduced. Meta-analyses suggest that 22% to 38% of major depressive episodes could be prevented with currently available methods. This article arguea that if major depressive episodes can be prevented, the health care system should provide routine access to evidence-based depression prevention interventions, just as it provides inoculations for other common and debilitating health problems.
Published in: American Psychologist
Postpartum Depression Prevalence and Impact on Infant Health, Weight, and Sleep in Low-Income and Ethnic Minority Women...
This study finds that there is a high prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms in very low income mothers in a predominately Hispanic sample. These symptoms have an adverse effect on the physical health of the infant children.
Published in: Maternal and Child Health Journal